Stipo, Francesco "World Federalist Manifesto. Guide to
Political Globalization" April 10, 2007. http://www.worldfederalistmanifesto.com
(April 21, 2007).
History of Modern Globalization and Background
of World Federalism
Ancient globalization differs from modern globalization in that the first was designed to conquest lands and was carried out by military invasion, while the second is geared toward the expansion of commerce and its instrument is the international agreement.
The International Legislative Branch
The creation of the United Nations was
characterized by an error at its source: every nation was given one vote in the Assembly. This way, a nation with thirteen thousand inhabitants has the same voting power of a nation with three hundred million. Such an inequality induced the initial members of the United Nations to find an artificial remedy to the original error,
subordinating the most important decisions to the approval of the Security Council, a body composed of five permanent Member States, each one with veto power.
The author introduces the idea of dividing the General Assembly into two different chambers, applying a bicameral system to the United Nations, like in many countries the Parliament is composed of a Senate and a House of Representatives. One branch would be based on the one vote-one nation voting system and the other on a weighted voting system such as the system defined by the author in the "Balanced Contribution Theory". The imbalance between the expenditure of Member States for international contributions and their national revenue causes a loss in the budgets and induces governments to raise taxes. The Balanced Contribution Theory demonstrates that if Member States' contributions to international organizations are proportional to the States' national income, an increase in contributions does not provoke an imbalance in the States' budgets and therefore does not induce the States to increase their national taxes.
The adoption of an income-based contribution system would create a voting system proportional to the Member States' ability to contribute to the budget of international organizations.
The author also proposes to unify the different Assemblies into one single General Assembly for the entire United Nations system. There is no reason to justify 18 different budget and 18 different Assemblies (one for each UN specialized agency). It would be much better to prepare one single budget and submit it, along with all Decisions and Resolutions, to the General Assembly of the United Nations.
The International Executive Branch
Each international organization has a different
contribution system, a different voting system and a different administration.
A United Nations' budget and management centralization would allow a better coordination of the activities and a reduction of costs of the 15 specialized agencies. The centralization of the UN system would create a de facto
The International Judiciary Branch
In a unified UN system, the International
Court of Justice should have jurisdiction oer disputes regarding the interpretation of the Resolutions and Decisions of all international organizations. The decisions of the International Court of Justice should be binding for both the Member States and the international organizations.
Article 4 of the Rome Statute of the ICC, which attributes the International Criminal Court the right to exercise its powers within the Member States’ territory, constitutes a clear violation of State sovereignty by the international organization. The International Criminal Court should limit its functions to the cases referred by the States and should only act with the consent of the nations.
The International Financial Branch
The functions, the organization and voting system of IMF and the World Bank are very similar. There is no reason why an identical work should performed by two different organizations. The merger of the World Bank Group with the International Monetary Fund would bring a reduction of the administrative costs of both organizations
The Allocation of Authority Between the
World Federal Government and the Nations
The confederate system would be created by the vertical separation of functions between international executive bodies and Member States’ governments, characterized by a limitation of federal power to international matters.
The horizontal separation of powers would be created by the independence of the legislative, executive, judiciary and financial branches.
The Alternative to the United Nations:
The League of Developed Nations
An alternative to the United Nations is the creation of a Trans Atlantic Free Trade Area, merging NAFTA with the European Union. The resulting economic organization would integrate with the military structure of NATO and develop into a North Atlantic Confederation. By attracting developing countries, it would eventually become a Union of Democratic Nations.
Advantages and Disadvantages of World
The confederate model represents the best solution for a world government, because on one hand it brings the balance of federal authority with State authority and on the other hand it allows Member States to withdraw from the international organization. The world federal government should not invade the sovereignty of nations, it should rather assist nations in solving their problems. The world confederation would be a middle way between the United Nations and the European Union, slightly more decentralized than the European Union and much more centralized than the current United Nations.
Humanity is reaching its most advanced stage, the era of maturity, characterized by cooperation among men in contrast with the antagonism of the past.
The achievement of this human phase requires the self-consciousness of human imperfection, whose only way of social cohabitation is repartition of powers and cooperation among nations.
The World Federalist Manifesto offers the reader a global and unitary vision of international organizations, giving insights on the inner mechanisms of the United Nations and a creative and constructive approach to the phenomenon of globalization.
The book encompasses all social sciences, examining international issues by a technical prospective, analyzing the economic, political, financial and legal elements of globalization and offering solutions to international problems.
The author focuses on the political aspects of globalization, examining the application of a confederate political model at the world level while reviewing the historical background of world federalism.
The author presents a model of world confederation divided into international legislative, executive, judicial and financial branches. In his view, the world government shall share the authority with Member States, in a way that both are sovereign within their respective sphere of competence. The world confederation should reflect the political and economic balances of world nations.
The book presents different means to achieve political globalization: the first, through the unification of the United Nations system by adopting a single budget, a single Assembly and voting system; the second, through the creation of a Trans Atlantic Free Trade Area, merging NAFTA with the European Union. The resulting economic organization would integrate with the military structure of NATO and develop into a North Atlantic Confederation. By attracting developing countries, it would eventually become a Union of Democratic Nations.
The World Federalist Manifesto constitutes an important contribution to the progress of humanity and is directed to all the people involved in the process of globalization.
About the Author
Francesco Stipo is a lawyer specializing in international business transactions, with years of professional experience working as “of counsel” for European law offices and foreign law advisor for American firms.
The author holds a Master Degree (L.L.M.) in Comparative Law from the University of Miami and a Ph.D. in International Law.
Dr. Stipo is the President Emeritus of the United States Association of the Club of Rome (he was a member of the Club of Rome and President of the United States Association between 2011 and 2014). He is an active member of the National Press Club and the Atlantic Council of the United States.
In August 2012 he was elected as a Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science for his contribution in the field of social sciences.
In June 2014 he was invited to join the Bretton Woods Committee, the organization that supports the Bretton Woods Institutions (World Bank and International Monetary Fund), for his expertise in global financial governance.
He gave several speeches on international affairs at distinguished venues, such as the United Nations, Harvard University and the World Congress of the International Political Science Association.
Over the course of the years he has published different articles on international law and economy in Europe and the United States (for instance, "The Future of the Arctic, a Key to Global Sustainability" and "The Future of the Pacific and its Relevance for Geo-economic Interests").
He wrote the World Federalist Manifesto in 2007, at age 33.
Born in Italy in April 1973, he has been living in Miami, Florida since 2001 and is a naturalized U.S. citizen (additional information on the author can be found here).
“Francesco Stipo's World Federalist Manifesto: Guide to Political Globalization adds another stepping stone to the already lively debate in many circles around the world of how best to achieve a confederated political system at the global level. Stipo is raising important issues regarding the complex path that is required to build a global structural framework that can bring about a more equitable and just system that will benefit all people on this earth.”
John W. McDonald, Ambassador (ret.) and Chairman of the Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy
“The World Federalist Manifesto is the most advanced study on global governance and the reform of the United Nations and elaborates original solutions to increase the efficiency of the international organizations. It is an essential milestone along the way towards a global world which lies ahead of us, and which we have the opportunity to build in the decades to come. Dr. Stipo's book constitutes an important contribution to the progress of humanity."
Prof. Orio Giarini, Former Secretary General of the Geneva Association
“There are some of the world’s pressing questions on international governance which are cogently discussed with conclusions found in the World Federalist Manifesto.
Francesco Stipo has thought deeply about the need for reform. He has attempted to write about U.N. reform bravely with concepts of various reforms well worth pondering.
Indeed this book would be the starting point for many civic groups as well as political science classes around the world to begin meaningful discussions about the future of the United Nations.
The World Federalist Manifesto by Francesco Stipo can provide insights and vision valuable to such a debate.”
Anitra Thorhaug, Ph.D., Yale Professor
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